Ladrech (1994: 17): “Europeanization is an incremental process reorienting the direction and shape of politics to the degree that EC political and economic dynamics become part of the organizational logic of national politics and policy-making”.

Börzel (1999: 574): “a process by which domestic policy areas become increasingly subject to European policy-making”.

Risse, Cowles and Caporaso (2001: 3): “the emergence and development at the European level of distinct structures of governance, that is, of political, legal and social institutions associated with political problem solving that formalizes interactions among the actors, and of policy networks specializing in the creation of authoritative European rules” (italics in original).

Héritier (2001): “the process of influence deriving from European decisions and impacting member states’ policies and political and administrative structures. It comprises the following elements: the European decisions, the processes triggered by these decisions as well as the impacts of these processes on national policies, decision processes and institutional structures”.

Radaelli (2003: 30): Europeanization refers to: “Processes of (a) construction (b) diffusion and (c) institutionalisation of formal and informal rules, procedures, policy paradigms, styles, ‘ways of doing things’ and shared beliefs and norms which are first defined and consolidated in the making of EU decisions and then incorporated in the logic of domestic discourse, identities, political structures and public policies”.

Ladrech (2010: 2): Europeanization is … understood as the change within a member state whose motivating logic is tied to a EU policy or decision-making process. The prime concern of any Europeanization research agenda is therefore establishing the causal link, thereby validating the impact of the EU on domestic change.


Ladrech, R. (1994), ‘Europeanization of Domestic Politics and Institutions: The Case of France’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 32:1, 69-88; Börzel, T. (1999), “Towards Convergence in Europe? Institutional Adaptation to Europeanization in Germany and Spain”, Journal of Common Market Studies, 39:4, 573-96; Risse, T., Cowles, M. G. and Caporaso, J. (2001), “Europeanization and Domestic Change: Introduction”, in Cowles, M. G., Caporaso, J. and Risse, T. (eds.) (2001), Transforming Europe: Europeanization and Domestic Change (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press), 1-20; Héritier, A. et. al. (2001), Differential Europe. The European Union Impact on national Policymaking (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield); Radaelli, C. (2003), ‘The Europeanization of Public Policy’, in Featherstone, K. and Radaelli, C. (2003) (eds.), The Politics of Europeanization (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 27-56. Ladrech, R. (2010), Europeanization and National Politics (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).